Work with your dissertation chair to determine any specific instructions or guidance that he or she may have for you.
Chapter 5, “Discussion,” is your opportunity to connect the findings and conclusions of your research back into the literature of the discipline. Where are there consistencies and inconsistencies? How do your findings inform, extend, or challenge existing theories or ideas? Chapter 5 is also where you make recommendations to practicing professionals and other researchers. What should leaders or organizations do differently? What future research opportunities exist?
You will complete your full chapter 5 in the BUS8120 course.
For this task in BUS8115, create an annotated outline of your chapter 5 that includes at least five connections to the body of literature. Additionally, the outline should include at least two implications for practitioners and at least two areas for future research.
As an annotated outline, you must provide more than a list. Each connection, implication, and future research area should include an explanation in a few sentences that leverages scholarly support.
Important note: Dissertation writing is highly recursive. As you write material in one section, you may need to make some adjustments or additions in other sections in order to build a cohesive document. Your discussion and recommendations might necessitate some updates to chapter 1 of your dissertation.
Note: A successful dissertation requires self-directed behaviors. To successfully pass each dissertation course, you must successfully complete (pass) each milestone presented in the course materials. Additionally, you must complete the milestones in the order they are presented in the course. The tasks in some milestones may take you more than a week to complete. Finish each milestone before you move on to the next milestone. In your planning, also allow time for feedback from your dissertation chair/committee and revisions as part of completing each task.
Running Head: THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL
THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 60
The Role of Strategic Management and Leadership Traits on Employee Performance, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Chapters 1 – 3 of the Dissertation
Submitted to South University
College of Business
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of
Doctor of Business Administration
BUS8105E_A-Doctoral Dissertation Proposal
Chair: Dr. List
Committee Member: Dr. Wermuth
The research study will focus on the role of strategic management traits on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. A literature review shows that strategic management style affects employees' performance, determination, and job satisfaction. Pioneer scholars have extensively researched strategic management styles though there is limited literature on the impacts of management traits. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the need for new management approaches in organizational management by comparing the varying effects of management and leadership traits on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. The existing management styles have weaknesses necessitating the need for more advanced approaches that can address these limitations. The study looks at different management traits to blend them to meet employees' needs and organizations' objectives. The researchers will use a situational strategic management theoretical framework to venture into the study. The framework recognizes the need for leadership adaptability based on situations. Stakeholders will use the findings to strengthen organizational management. In this study, researchers are using management, as well as leadership in other areas.
Table of Contents Abstract 2 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 5 Purpose of the Study 6 Statement of the Problem 6 Theoretical Framework 7 Definitions 7 Research Questions and Hypotheses 8 Scope of the Study 11 Delimitations: 11 Limitations: 11 Assumptions, Risks and Biases 12 Significance of the Study 13 Summary 13 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 Definition of Strategic Management 16 The strategy statements 17 Importance of vision and mission statements 17 Conceptual Framework 18 Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management 26 Characteristics and Features of Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management 27 Business Policy 29 Features of a Good Business Policy 29 Importance of Business Policies 30 SWOT Analysis 31 Factors of the SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) 31 Advantages of SWOT Analysis 33 Limitations of SWOT Analysis 35 Competitor Analysis 36 Reasons for Doing a Competitor Analysis 36 Strategic Leadership 37 Summary 38 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 40 Research Method 40 Research Design 41 Participants 42 Instrumentation 43 Structured Interviews 45 Research Procedure 45 Data Analysis 46 Protection of Human Rights 47 Delimitations and Limitations 47 Assumptions, Risks and Biases 48 Significance of the Study 49 Summary 49 References 51 Appendices 55 Appendix A: Informed Consent Form for Participants 56 Appendix B: Screening Questionnaire for Participants 57 Appendix C: Permission from Michelin’s HR Manager 58 Appendix D: Message Group Board Post 60 Appendix E: IWPQ Permission 61 Appendix F: MLQ Permission 64 Appendix G: MLQ 65 Appendix H: Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) 67 Appendix I: Sample Size Calculator 70 Appendix J: SurveyMonkey 71 Appendix K: Age Rang and Sex of Managers and Supervisors 72
The current research study will focus on the impacts of strategic management attributes on employee performance, motivation and, job satisfaction. There are different management styles that management use to influence their followers towards a particular organizational goal. Some of the approaches are transformational, Laissez-Faire, democratic, transactional and autocratic management. Business cultures influence extensively the type of strategic management styles used in organizations. Many scholars in organizational behavior and management have published articles on how management styles affect employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Most researchers have found out that the type of management style utilized in organizations affects employees. Research by Al Khajeh (2018) to determine the role of management on performance found out that management approaches affect organizational performance. Also, researchers have found that transformational and transactional management styles have varying impacts on performance, employee motivation, and job satisfaction (Choi et al., 2017). Employees work well under some leadership styles because their leaders appreciate their contributions at their workplace. In other situations, employees may feel encouraged when leaders reward their top performances.
Unlike previous studies focused on leadership style in general, this research study will focus on leadership traits. Stakeholders distinguish each of the leadership styles by characteristics that have a significant impact on employee performance. People characterize management by rewarding and punishing instances, while management is by inspiration and follower empowerment (Choi et al., 2017, Lan et al., 2019). There is a need to narrow down to the particular traits to understand their impacts on employees. The study is crucial in the field of organizational management and behaviors in many ways. The study's findings can help leaders find a proper balance of management traits to create a motivated, performing, and satisfied workforce. Also, the study's outcomes may help leaders and organizations to incorporate appropriate leadership styles within their operations. Thus, the study will focus on management traits and how they impact performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. The management traits that the study will focus on are visionary, delegation, and reward and punishment.
The purpose of the study is to shift overemphasis on management styles to management traits. The second purpose is to inform organizations against restricting strategic management to one management style. In other words, the study will intend to help a visionary leader to use reward and punishment rather than inspiration only. While visionary is a trait for a traditional leader and reward and punishment a character of a transactional leader, leaders can merge them to create a hybrid leadership style based on how they complement each other.
There is a literature gap to address leadership traits and their impacts on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Most scholarly work provides comprehensive information on leadership styles and their effects on various organizational aspects (Fiaz et al., 2017). However, few of the reviewed academic works discuss the concept of leadership traits. The gap prompts the need for new research that the study will address. The other problem is that while most evidence shows that some leadership styles negatively affect employees, there is no solution from the literature. Some leadership styles only suit the organizational culture or goals and not the employees (Choi et al., 2017). Likewise, some management tactics may fit employees and not the organization's long-term goals. Consequently, there is a problem to address these challenges. Assessing the management traits and their impacts may lead to a viable solution on balancing organizational culture and employees’ needs within the management framework.
The research will apply the situational management theoretical framework. According to situational management theories, management style should change based on the prevailing circumstances (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). Consequently, the model assumes that there is no one suitable management style that applies to all situations. Moreover, the model recognizes the importance of management having the ability to deal with diverse circumstances. In the research study, the researcher will use the theoretical framework to solve the puzzle of establishing fixed management styles within organizations (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). In the research paper, the researcher will use the theoretical framework to solve the puzzle of establishing fixed management styles within organizations (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). Also, the research study will utilize the theoretical framework to show why management styles are needed in most organizations to meet the need of employees and the goals of organizations. The advanced management style is possible by combining various management traits. Hence, the study will focus on management traits and their impacts on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.
Leadership: Perspectives from the Front Line has addressed leadership as a critical organizational capability and intervention in what was clearly an ambitious endeavor: a bold attempt to tackle leadership from a Strategic Leadership Value Perspective in as comprehensive a way as possible (Veldsman, 2016).
Quantitative research: is expressed in numbers and graphs. It is used to test or confirm theories and assumptions. This type of research can be used to establish generalizable facts about a topic.
Qualitative research : is presented in words. It is used to understand concepts, thoughts or experiences. This type of research enables you to assemble in-depth insights on topics that are not well understood.
· What is the impact of transformational management on employee motivation and job performance?
The question is essential in determining the specific attributes of transformational management that encourage employees and prompt better performance. Transformational management led their teams towards a common goal through inspiration and encouragement (Lan et al., 2019). Management focus on improving the entire group for organizational success. Each employee participates in the decision-making process at the company. Also, transformational management train their followers for higher responsibilities at the organization and use them as partners to achieve organizational objectives (Lan et al., 2019). The research question will help the researcher to narrow down to leadership-specific attributes and evaluate how they influence employees’ wellness that in turn affects motivation and performance. The study's purpose is to determine how management attributes affect motivation, employee satisfaction, and performance. Therefore, the answer to the question will help to respond to the question.
Hypothesis 1 Null: There are no impacts of transformational management on employee motivation and job performance.
Hypothesis 1 Alternant: There are impacts of transformational management on employee motivation and job performance.
· Do rewards and punishments affect employee’s motivation, performance, and job satisfaction?
· Some management styles incorporate punishments (right ups, such as no bonuses, granted overtime, and granted incentives, etc.), rewards (such as a raise, extra overtime, promotions, etc.) to control employees. Most literature in organizational behavior focuses much on management styles and fails to narrow down to the specific management traits. Reward and punishment are practiced by transactional management. Top performers are rewarded while poor performers are punished. Punishments include receiving lower salaries based on their performances (not making production, or meet their quotas), job dismissal, or receiving inferior positions (such as a supervisor, or manager’s position) with lower pay. Transactional management tend to focus much on individuals rather than a group (Wahyuni et al., 2019; Pishgooie et al., 2018). They are more concerned with the planning and execution processes, and often, rely on the established structures to exert influence on their followers. The research question will help me to delve deeper into management attributes that affect overall employee motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. The response to the question is pivotal in answering the overall research question on the impacts of management attributes on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 2 Null: Rewards and punishment do not affect employees' performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 2 Alternant: Rewards and punishment do affect employees' performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.
· Does delegation affect employee motivation, job satisfaction, and performance?
Some management styles embrace role delegation while others do not. Delegation is assigning roles to other team members for various reasons. The question aims to create an understanding of how the attribute of rile delegation affect motivation, satisfaction, and performance (Pishgooie et al., 2018). Employees may feel valued when they receive more roles at their workplace in some instances while others may feel demotivated due to increased roles. Either way, delegation will affect motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. Some management styles that embrace delegation are transformational and charismatic. The findings on the question will help to determine how leadership traits affect employees' wellness. These findings will align study purpose that aims at finding the relationship between management traits and motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 3 Null: Delegation does not motivates employees, leads to job satisfaction and better performance.
Hypothesis 3 Alternant: Delegation does motivate employees, leads to job satisfaction and better performance.
· What are the impacts of a visionary management on motivation, employee performance, and job satisfaction?
Visionary management is one with a clear picture of how the future should look. Visionary managers are strategic and influence their followers to undertake bold steps for a better future. The visionary trait is associated with charismatic and transformational management styles (Lan et al., 2019). The question is essential for the study, because it will help in examining how various management traits affect employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 4 Null: There are no impacts of visionary leaders on motivation, employee performance, and job satisfaction?
Hypothesis 4 Alternate: There are impacts of visionary leaders on motivation, employee performance, and job satisfaction?
The study will focus on the relationship between various management traits and their impacts on motivation, job satisfaction, and employee performance. The research study will consider the strengths and weaknesses of key management traits such as reward and punishment and how they affect employees and overall performance. Further, the research will examine how management and organizations can reduce the risks associated with management traits by combining strategic management characteristics from various management styles. The study focuses on management traits because scholars have covered extensively on management styles.
One of the limitations in conducting the study is resources and time. Comprehensive research will require enough time and money to actualize and, that is not possible for this research study. Secondly, the study will include a smaller sample size which limits its credibility. The researcher’s plan to overcome these limitations is to manage my time, and recourses to where the researcher would make sure that he/she will have the proper recourses to complete my research in a timely manner. The researcher will overcome the challenge of time and resources by properly planning for the available time and resources prior conducting the study. The researcher will solve the issue of credibility by collecting data first hand through interviews and questionnaires and observing as the respondents provide information.
Assumption refers to conditions under which the statistical techniques utilized will lead to valid results. In this context, the researcher assumed that the employees involved in the study would cooperate by providing honest and complete answers during interview sessions and when responding to questionnaires. Additionally, the sample was assumed to be true representation of study population as they had similar characteristics.
Biases occur when the entire research process is skewed to achieve a specific outcome. One of the biases that can occur in research is design biases which relates to the structure and method of the research. Design bias is contributed by the preferences of the researcher instead of selecting research design that work effectively for a certain context. In our context, it is worth noting that there is risk of biases from the interviewer as he can introduce his disposition or relation with the participants. There is also a risk of biased questions in terms of negative questions or leading questions during the interview and in the questionnaires (such as rather the participants are male or female, black or white, religious or none) Predetermined questions will be used for the structured interview. This will ensure consistency among employees and managers drawn from different organizations (Formplus, 2020). The uniformity of questions will prevent biases during the research process.
Managers of different companies will benefit from the finding of this study because in a globalized world, the strategic management influence the state of performance appraisal system. They will understand different strategic management practices and this will help them to improve performance of appraisal system. Management of companies will get better understanding of the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system. This will help them to obtain more information on how to establish strategic management practices that will improve performance appraisal system in their organizations.
The findings of this study will also be beneficial to academicians and scholars as it will provide them with relevant literature on strategic management and performance appraisal. It will highlight the relationship between strategic management in organizations and the performance appraisal system.
Summarily, the study will focus on the impacts of management traits on performance, employee motivation, and job satisfaction. A situational theoretical framework will be applied in the study. The purpose of the research study is to help management, and organizations to adopt hybrid management styles rather than depending on the existing techniques which may not suit the changing workforce and business environment. The limitations in the study include inadequate time and resources. When conducting the study, the assumption is that management traits have similar impacts on all employees and that organizations will embrace the study's findings. In this study, I am using management, as well as leadership in other areas.
Strategic management entails finding and describing the methods that managers might employ to boost their company's performance and acquire a competitive advantage. A competitive advantage is defined as an organization's profitability exceeding that of all other firms in its industry (Schmuck, 2020). Preparing for both anticipated and unforeseeable occurrences is the essence of strategic management. It is relevant to both small and large businesses as even the smallest businesses face competition and can gain a competitive edge over time by developing and implementing effective strategies. Employees benefit from strategic management because it gives them a broader perspective on how their job fits into the organization's overall plan and how it relates to other members of the business team. It is the capacity to manage people in a way that maximizes their potential to fulfill business goals (Kombate et al., 2021). Therefore, the main objective of this work is to review the literature on the main concepts of strategic management in an organization. The review of literature is divided into the following parts; (1) the definition of strategic management, (2) the process of strategic management, (3) the components of strategic management, (4)strategy statements, (5) importance of vision and mission statements, (6) Conceptual framework (8) summary
According to a study conducted by Annah Mumbua (2019), strategic management plays a great role in the performance of employees. Strategic management allows organizations to undertake performance appraisals to identify employees’ strengths and weaknesses and provide room for appropriate adjustments. A study conducted by Stacey Mumbua (2014), showed that training and development, recognition and reward, a conducive working environment and leadership influence employees’ personal development, creativity, and innovativeness. Reward and recognition acts as a strategic motivational strategy which is commonly applied by South Eastern Kenya Regional Universities to enhance employee job satisfaction, improve their productivity and enhance employee retention. Good working conditions and leadership strategies improves on communication and reduces employees’ conflicts.
Managers employ strategy to accomplish one or more of the organization's goals. According to another definition, "a general direction defined for the company and its numerous components toward obtaining a desired state in the future." "Strategy is the result of a comprehensive strategic planning process." In order to attain present goals, a strategy requires merging organizational operations as well as utilizing and allocating finite resources within the organizational environment. Remember that initiatives are not made in a vacuum and that any action taken by a firm is likely to generate a reaction from those that are affected, such as opponents, customers, employees, or suppliers, while formulating a strategy.
Strategy is critical now that it is hard to anticipate the future. Even if they lack perfect foresight, businesses must be prepared to put up with the unpredictable occurrences that make up a business environment (MSG, 2021). It also considers long-term trends rather than daily operations, such as the likelihood of future breakthroughs, new products, new production methods, or new markets. Finally, when establishing a strategy, the expected behavior of customers and competitors is considered. Employee behavior is predicted by employee management practices. As a result, a company's strategy is a very well road plan. It establishes the general mission, vision, and strategy of an organization (Kombate et al., 2021). A strategy's purpose is to maximize an organization's strengths while minimizing the strengths of competitors.
The strategy statement sets the long-term strategic direction and broad policy directions of an organization. It includes:
1. Strategic intent: it is the purpose and the reason why there is a strategy statement, and it continues to exist to maintain a competitive advantage. It helps the management of focus on the priorities of an organization; hence it influences the resource potential of an organization and core competencies to be achieved.
2. Mission Statement: it is the statement of the role by which an organization intends to serve its stakeholders. Provides a framework within which strategies are formulated as it describes reasons why an organization is operating,
3. Vision: it identifies where the organization intends or wants to be in the future and where it should be when it meets all the needs of the stakeholders.
4. Goals and objectives: a goal is desired future state that an organization tries to achieve or a period. What must be done by an organization is specified by goals making mission and vision more prominent and concrete. On the other end, objectives are defined as goals to be achieved by an organization.
The organization must have a lucid, coherent, and meaningful vision and mission statements to return more than double the numbers for the benefit of shareholders. Mission and vision are very beneficial to an organization in many ways, and they include:
• They provide unanimity of purpose to organizations and make the staff feel a sense of belonging and identity.
• They spell out the context in which an organization operates by providing workers with a tone to be followed in the workplace.
• They serve as focal points for employees to identify themselves with an organization's activity. It also gives every individual in an organization a sense of direction as well deterring those who do not wish to follow them from taking part in the activities of an organization.
• Help in translating the objectives of an organization into work structures and assign tasks to organization elements.
• Specify the main structure utilized by an organization when translating objectives into actionable cost, performance, and time-related measures.
• Provide a philosophy of existence to employees as well as provide the necessary meaning for work in an organization.
Strategies management requires an organization to set objectives, analyze the actions of competitors, evaluate its current strategies and confirm them, review internal structure and implement the approved strategies (Pavlák & Písař, 2020). Strategic management can be either be prescriptive or descriptive. Prescriptive strategic management is when an organization develops strategies in advance (Fuertes et al., 2020). Descriptive strategic management is when an organization puts strategies into practice only when needed (Fuertes et al., 2020). However, both descriptive and prescriptive management use management theory and practices.
Therefore, in this study, prescriptive strategic management will be used as a strategic management approach. The objectives of organizations will have to be defined in advance, and the main elements developed before the strategy begins. An organization has to intentionally plan and formulate a deliberate, rational strategy according to its intentions. The approach follows an authoritative management style as well as a top-down hierarchical structure. The process in this approach is linear, i.e., from strategic analysis to development and then to implementation (Fuertes et al., 2020). The approach is an orderly, deterministic, rational, and systematic process. Besides, the prescriptive approach is being used together with a systematic review of the literature. The systematic review of literature is carried out as an appropriate methodology to produc
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